Teaching Writing: Problems Students Face

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Frank Bonkowski is an educational writer, English language teacher, and e-learning specialist, passionate about learning and teaching. As a lover of writing, Frank has a twofold mission: to teach English learners to write better and to train language teachers in teaching effective academic writing. He was a teacher trainer at several universities, including McGill, Concordia, and TELUQ, a center of distance education.  We are thrilled to have Frank as a member of our online course community at English Learner Portal.

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In today’s post I want to introduce you to a new three-credit graduate course in teaching writing.  I’ll give you a peek into one of the lectures in Module 1, “Problems students face in learning.”

JOIN me on June 28 for a 2-hour online writing workshop

New Online professional development course

Teaching Writing to Intermediate and Advanced English Language Learners is now available. This 3-credit graduate course is aimed at beginner and experienced English-language teachers who want to improve their knowledge and skills in teaching academic writing.

Teaching Writing, a multimedia course containing five modules, is your complete guide to teaching academic writing. Each module has a short video introduction, several recorded lectures, an accompanying tape script, a reading, an interview with a writing expert (in three of the modules), and a self-assessment exercise. To obtain university credit for the course, participants must complete five quizzes and two assignments.

A peek inside Module 1

peekinsideThe first module explores the context for teaching and learning academic writing to adolescent English language learners. Topics include some effective ways for teaching academic writing,  problems English language learners face in learning, the distinction between comprehensible input and output, and an overview of the WIDA writing rubrics with Kelly Reider. In today’s post, I want to share with you parts of Lecture 2.

Teaching Writing

Module 1: Problems student face in learning

External issues

externalissuesHow well do you know your students? Experienced teachers realize that they have to take the time to get to know their language students as human beings. I have always taken the time to relate to my students, to understand where they are coming from, to learn about their interests and hobbies, and to ask about what they are good at.

Language teachers need to understand the external and personal issues in the lives of their students, so well described in “Teaching writing to diverse populations” (Fowler). Let’s look at three external issues.

First, learning to write well is challenging cognitively and linguistically, not only for English language learners but also native speakers of English.

Second, some English language learners come from disadvantaged homes at the lower end of the socio-economic ladder. Many students work part time which cuts into their study time. In addition, some of them have learning disabilities. In the school where I teach ESL, over 10% of the students are dyslexic or have learning difficulties often related to stress.

Third, English language teachers may not be up to the task. They may lack the pedagogical knowledge as well as effective strategies and techniques to teach academic writing. They could benefit from professional development courses to upgrade their teaching skills, such as this course.

Furthermore, English language teachers may not have access to good resources. They may not know how to implement consistently academic writing into their program.

Let’s now move on to three personal issues or problems that English language learners may have (Fowler). Learners often lack the knowledge and skills to write well. Even more importantly, they may not be motivated to write well or write at all.

internalissuesPersonal issues

Knowledge problems

I teach academic writing to intermediate and advanced ESL learners. Yet many of them do not know what good writing is. They do not know how to start to write, thinking that just putting ideas on paper pell mell is good enough. They need to improve their knowledge of vocabulary—using synonyms and antonyms for example.

Moreover, students often have a poor sense of sentence structure and variety. Learners may know who the latest pop stars are, but they have limited knowledge of current events or social issues in general.

Finally, learners are not always familiar with some of the purposes of writing, such as to persuade or inform readers.

Skill problems

Let’s move on to skill problems that many English language learners face (Fowler).

A common problem I see among learners is that they are not interested in planning. They fail to plan which effectively means that they plan to fail.

Another problem is that they do not how to revise their writing. It is like pulling teeth to get them to reflect on their writing. Another issue is that they do not know how to self regulate their ideas and actions. It is a metacognitive skill that they have perhaps never been taught.

As most teachers know, learners have limited attention spans. That is not surprising. The latest research shows that the attention span of adults is only eight seconds. As I mentioned before, many learners have either visual or motor disabilities.

Motivation problems

Let’s have a brief look at some of the motivational issues that English language learners have (Fowler). For example, they have rarely been taught to develop writing goals. So they do not know how to achieve success. Some think that they fail to write well because they are not smart enough. They may have this erroneous self-belief that they can never succeed.

In addition, many learners are not very persistent in their attempts to write well. They are easily discouraged by constant failure.

What are some effective ways to teach academic writing?

lightbulbEnglish language learners need to be taught how to write effectively. They need to know how to achieve their goals within a given context. Learners need to be taught how to express themselves effectively. They need to learn how to write well-organized, clear texts.

Here are three effective strategies for teaching writing that we will explore further in later lectures (Graham, 1-2).

  • First, teachers should explicitly teach learners appropriate writing strategies. They should use effective instructional models, such as Engage-Study-Activate that we look at in lecture 2.1 (Harmer, 25-29).
  • Second, teachers should help learners develop their reading comprehension skills to become better writers. Reading can be an important tool to develop writing skills (Writing). Both reading and writing can help learners think and learn better. Teachers should show learners good texts, highlighting their outstanding features.
  • Third, students should receive regular feedback to keep track of their own success in writing. This feedback can take the form of teacher to students, students to students, and student self-reflection, using for example the Virtual Writing Tutor. More about this online tool in lecture 5.5.

Other strategies that we can mention include teaching grammar explicitly, providing challenging activities, and helping students build their vocabulary (Writing).

In Teaching by Principles, Brown recommends teachers get students to:

  • Use the practices of “good” writers, such as following an organizational plan as they write
  • Do prewriting activities, such as conducting outside research or discussing a topic or question.

In the next blog post, we will take a peek into one of the lectures in Module 2,  “What is successful language learning?”

JOIN me on June 28 for a 2-hour online writing workshop

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Set a larger table….

Set a Larger Table
by guest blogger Laurie Meberg

I had never felt more isolated in my life. My family had just moved to a town where we knew only one family. This was my first opportunity to live in a foreign town where I did not have a local community on which to rely. To make matters more isolating, I was a stay at home mom to two girls under the age of three while my husband set up his office in the town center. My shortcomings in the local language limited me further. Finally, I was used to blending into the chaos of an international city and had found myself in a small town where I stuck out more than I had in the city. While I saw the same people every time I went out of the house, they did not seem to recognize me.

My neighbors did not know what to make of this blonde-haired, fair-skinned family who had just moved into their building. They had heard through the grapevine that my husband would be teaching English lessons to take the place of our dear friends in the local language institute. While most of the neighbors and people in our community avoided us as they passed us by – watching us only out of the corners of their eyes – one family in particular took us in. My next-door neighbors and their five teenage daughters were life to me in that season.

MebergBlogWithin a week of our arrival, Muzyen and her family greeted us and welcomed us. When I came home from errands, they eagerly kept the kids while I shuttled groceries up the three flights of stairs. Muzyen understood my younger daughter’s nervous cries and stood singing to her in the hallway as they watched me work. When her daughters were home, one of the daughters would keep my girls entertained while I cleaned the house or cooked dinner – teaching them songs, hand-games, and stories.  When my family returned from outings and clomped and chattered our way up the stairs, Muzyen’s family would open the door to talk with us and visit with our little kids. Occasionally, on long afternoons, Muzyen would break up the monotony of my day by inviting me for tea. She offered sweet pastries and savory dishes as we fumbled through small-talk and conversation.

I learned through our visits that Muzyen’s husband had recently retired from a career in mining. In their early years of marriage, the couple lived far from their families while Muzyen’s husband worked long shifts in the mines. She spent those years home with little children having to find her own friends and support system but the early years had been very hard. She encouraged me by empathizing with my isolation and welcoming me into her life.

Holidays were the hardest days for me as a foreigner in a strange land. Surprisingly, our own holidays were not so hard. Rather than wallow in self-pity about missing our family, I would find creative ways to make traditional foods, decorate with what we could find, and teach the children about our holidays. While I missed celebrating with our extended family, I would visit with friends in other cities. I found that – rather than our own holidays – the local holidays were harder for me.

As a local holiday drew near, I noticed the community brimming with excitement as 02A12D2Geveryone prepared for a big event. The neighbors would clean their homes top to bottom – so thoroughly that they would even hang their carpets over the balconies to dry after hand-washing them. The community scoured the local markets and stores for specialty foods they would use for traditional meals, toys to give their children, and outfits to wear for the festivities. Furthermore, people stocked up their kitchens as shops would be closed for a few days.

While some ex-pats might take this as an opportunity to relax and stay home, I could not. Despite my introversion, I longed to be part of the festivities. I too wanted a reason to cook, clean, shop, and visit – anticipation that transformed the routine.

Al Fresco Dining, With Food Laid Out On TableMuzyen knew what it was to be an outsider. Because of that, she invited us to join her family’s festivities. One of the more intimate components of their celebrations was a breakfast to break their fast. Muzyen had already graciously included our family at a few of their iftar dinner meals. The breakfast marked the beginning of a three-day celebration. This was more of a family affair. Normally new friends or neighbors might visit on the third day, but in my observation not typically the first breakfast.

Muzyen taught me a lesson that day. She modeled for me how to be a neighbor and how to be a friend. There were not elaborate schemes or agendas hidden in her invitation – rather a simple invitation from one woman who had experienced isolation to another woman who was in the midst of it. She had no idea that some of her traditional foods were similar to those of my grandparents and she had no idea how honored I was to be included. She expanded her table, added four plates, and welcomed us in – not as strangers but as if we belonged.

I have applied this lesson many times in the past ten years. How hard is it for me to welcome a newcomer to our celebrations?  Being a newcomer is lonely. But to welcome a newcomer in speaks volumes.

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mebergLaurie Meberg has been working cross-culturally for seventeen years as a teacher, community developer, and refugee liaison. She learned two languages through immersion and tried to learn a third through friendships in a multicultural community. She has frequently helped emerging English speakers by being a conversation partner – mostly over cups of tea. She lives in Colorado with her husband and three children.
She can be found on instagram @ _lauries_stories_

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Click HERE to join the English Learner Portal mail list!  Receive information about our free resources and new courses as they are released, including upcoming spring and summer courses in our online classroom!  Check out our Spring/Summer 2018 course list HERE.  New courses beginning in March!

English Learner Portal    January 2018

Social Skills with Newcomer Students

The Importance of Social Skills with Newcomer Students
by Graciela Williams, Guest Blogger

turkeyThanksgiving is almost here, and, undoubtedly, your classroom is buzzing with excitement for the soon-approaching break. You might find that you and your students have finally found a steady routine. You may even feel that your students have some sense of your classroom rules and requirements, even if many of those aren’t exactly followed to a “T.” Your sense of classroom “normalcy” is at its peak when, suddenly, you get word that you will have a new student. Not only will you have a new student, but it will be a new student that speaks limited English. You have been here before and know the difficulty of adding a new student into the mix, but a student that speaks limited English is a step further. The classroom dynamic changes, and the educational “catch up” game quickly follows. This scenario is all too common in many schools across the U.S. Teachers and school administration begin to identify the challenges of students who start school mid-year, but they soon find themselves focusing on classroom dynamics and making sure that the student meets certain targets for educational purposes. An area that can be easily overlooked is the newcomer’s social and emotional well-being. Adjustment in the classroom involves much more than the student’s physical and mental understanding of school and classroom norms.

Research is finding that new incoming students require social and emotional support studentsduring school adjustment periods. Although the needs of the students increase, the school’s ability to provide adequate resources and staff to meet the needs of the students remains limited. Even with limitations, schools can still make sure that all of the newcomer’s needs are met in order for the student to be successful in the classroom. Incorporating social skills lessons within the classroom can promote an environment where newcomer students share experiences, establish connections, and practice their English abilities.

Sharing experiences, for newcomer students, in a non-threatening environment is a great way for students to start building connections and relationships with their peers. girlsBeginning conversations at the lunch table or at recess can be intimidating, but providing an in-class activity, where students share in small groups, can help promote effective communication and relationship building. It allows the newcomer to participate in the lesson all while learning essential vocabulary skills. Social skills lessons can help promote English by having newcomers practice their English skills within the four domains: speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Social skill lessons can also help the teacher understand their student’s background in a non-intrusive manner. Understanding the student’s past experiences can shed some light on educational learning experiences and current levels of social, emotional, and physical adaptation to a new learning environment.

For a FREE sample social/emotional lesson, visit the “Newcomers/SIFE” folder in the English Learner Portal Resource Center.  This activity promotes the four domains, while engaging students in a fun, interactive activity where they feel comfortable sharing about their experiences.  The full lesson plan and Feelings Cards included!

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gracieGraciela Williams “Gracie” is a licensed bilingual school social worker in Annapolis, Maryland. Gracie currently works with newcomer students and runs several social skills groups around the county. She specializes in working with international students who have experienced trauma. She has done extensive work incorporating and facilitating student and parent reunification groups within the school system. Gracie has worked as an Adult ESL teacher and program manager for literacy centers in South Carolina and Colorado. She has a bachelor’s degree in counseling from Bob Jones University and a master’s degree in social work from the University of New England. Gracie is also an Adjunct Professor for Goucher College, where she teaches a graduate level seminar course regarding At Risk Students, and she is an Adjunct Community Faculty for The University of New England providing field instruction to current MSW students.

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Click HERE to join the English Learner Portal mail list!  Receive information about our free resources and new online courses as they are released, including an upcoming course by Gracie!  Check out our current courses HERE.

English Learner Portal    November 2017

Hard writing makes easy reading…

frankToday’s blog post is written by guest blogger, Frank Bonkowski.  Frank has over 30 years of experience writing English language teaching materials, creating e-courses, and teaching English language at university, college, and high school levels.  Frank teaches at Cégep de Saint-Laurent in Montreal, Canada.  He has co-authored nine textbooks and consulted on many projects with publishers and e-learning companies.  We are thrilled to have Frank as an online classroom partner with English Learner portal.
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Hard writing makes easy reading – an old adage

In Teaching by Principles, Brown compares swimming and writing. You might wonder, what does swimming have to do with academic writing? I am a swimmer, so I know how hard it is to swim well. I am a writer too, and it is just as difficult for me to write well.

I do sprint triathlons—a combination of swimming, biking, and running. frankswinSwimming is my weakest event because I never learned to swim correctly. Fortunately, I am a better writer than I am a swimmer.

According to psychologists, human beings easily learn how to walk and talk; learning to swim and write well is another matter. Brown states that “swimming and writing are culturally specific, learned behaviours.” We need to be taught how to swim and write.

So how do you teach academic writing to English language learners?

In today’s post, I will introduce you to a new professional development course coming soon from English Learner Portal that answers this question. It is called Teaching academic writing to intermediate and advanced English language learners.

Here are some of the issues the course will address.

  • Why is teaching academic English important?
  • How does academic English differ from conversational English?
  • What are some of the problems that English language learners face in learning to write at an acceptable level?
  • What are some effective ways to teach academic writing?

Why teach academic writing?

Let me touch on the first issue: why we should teach academic writing—with the emphasis on academic.

If you are an English language teacher in today’s language classroom, you know from experience the importance of teaching academic language as well as academic writing. In fact, it has become an important part of the curriculum.

In “Teaching secondary students to write effectively: practical guide,” Graham argues that academic English is a necessity for English language learners for achieving success both inside and outside the classroom.

However, attaining language proficiency is a long process. It takes three to five years to become orally proficient in English, and four to seven years to become proficient in academic English, according to researcher Gary Cook.

In other research findings, Graham and Perin point out that good reading and writing skills predict academic success. Having these essential skills motivates learners to stay in the classroom and not drop out. Not all English language learners will go on to higher education. However, equipped with these two skills, learners will be better able to participate more fully in society.

There are other intrinsic reasons to teach writing in the classroom as Jeremy Harmer in How to Teach English attests:

  • First, writing reinforces understanding English and keeping language in memory.
  • Second, the actual writing process is a mental activity that helps learners learn better.
  • Third, the task of writing appeals to some learners who need to see the written language and reflect on it.
  • Lastly, writing is a linguistic skill just as important as reading, listening, and speaking. In both language and content classrooms, English language learners must be able to communicate effectively.

In his practical guide, Graham states that learners need to think critically, analyze information, and express their opinions and thoughts if they are to succeed.

New Online Training course

Let me describe briefly the self-paced course that we are in the process of creating at English Learner Portal.

The five modules in the course are designed to help teachers learn and use effective strategies and techniques to teach academic writing to English language learners.

The training course has five objectives:

  • Describe critical issues in teaching academic writing to ELLs.
  • Explain why teaching academic writing to ELLs is important.
  • Demonstrate to ELLs the initial steps in planning to write.
  • Show ELLs examples of effective writing at the sentence, paragraph and text levels.
  • Illustrate to ELLs techniques for editing and revising their writing.

highlighterCourse features

Here are the main features of the training course:

  • Audiovisual presentation of the more than 25 lectures
  • Transcripts of all the lectures
  • Readings: the latest research in the field of English language teaching
  • Interviews: writing specialists share their thinking on teaching writing
  • Activities: tasks to get teachers to implement what they are learning
  • Discussion forum: teachers share their ideas with the instructor and all the teachers
  • Quizzes: self-graded
  • Self-assessments: allow teachers to to get feedback on what they’re learning
  • Graded assignments: allow teachers to get feedback from the instructor
  • Certificate of completion.

Interviews

Knowledgeable resource people will share their ideas about teaching writing:

  • Kelly Reider, founder of ELP, on Wida writing rubrics
  • Dorothy Zemach, author of “50 Ways to Practice Writing”
  • Ktwente, HS teacher, on plagiarism
  • Nick Walker, creator of the Virtual Writing Tutor, on self-correcting.

Bonus Material

An added feature is a fun section dealing with teaching English literature through film.

Downloadable teaching unit

The training course will make available to teachers —at a discount price—a downloadable teaching unit called “The Amazing World of Comics” (Soubliere, 2007).

The unit offers a number of engaging reading, listening, and speaking activities.

Learners build on these activities to create their own comic strips about a famous person or a superhero.

comics

The unit—which I created—shows learners how illustrators and authors present their creative ideas through comics. The broad areas of language learning include career planning, entrepreneurship and media literacy.

The teaching unit encourages learners to:

  • use information
  • exercise critical judgement
  • be creative adopt effective work methods
  • use information and communication Technologies
  • cooperate with other learners, and
  • communicate appropriately.

The materials include the following three components:

  • 40-page teacher guide explaining how to use the unit, including suggested answers for activities end tasks.
  • 18 student activities that teach writing, grammar, and vocabulary leading to three engaging closure projects.
  • 27-page full color teaching unit in PDF format.

School licenses will be available for teachers to use the unit in their classroom.

Stay in touch with us at Englishlearnerportal.com. Sign up for our email updates to get the latest information on the upcoming course launch date!

Relationships first….then data

In my last blog, I shared a few simple tips to welcome your newcomer English learners into your classroom.  Now that everyone is settling in, what’s next?  Getting to know who exactly is sitting in front of you!

It’s important to get to know your students as people before drawing any conclusions about their knowledge and potential.  Even if students are not proficient in English, they are coming to you with a lifetime of experiences in their first language to lean on.  Take some time to get to know their interests, their background, and how they think.  As you get to know what sparks their interest and engages them in learning, ideas for differentiation will come more easily.

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The best way to get to know your students more personally is to take the time to talk one-on-one.  This may be difficult with your beginning English proficiency students, but with the help of some visuals and manipulatives, it IS possible.  Questionnaires that allow students to use pictures, clip art, or magazine clippings as their responses are particularly helpful.  With the popularity of social media, emojis and other icons are widely understood and can help students express their feelings, likes, and dislikes.  Students can match a picture that shows an emotion to pictures of scenes, determining how the student feels about particular situations or activities.  For a few sample “getting to know you” visual sorts, please visit our free Resource Center found in the English Learner Portal Online Classroom.  In the “Newcomer/SIFE” file you will find student profile samples, sort cards, and directions you can download and use right away.  Sort cards are also quick and easy to make if you need to customize to a certain age or group.
sortcardpicPicture sorts that require students to categorize and classify items will give you insight into how a student is thinking and processing.  Sorts such as living or non-living, colors and shapes, or land features and map elements will allow students to share some of their background knowledge visually.  There are a number of sample cognitive sort and match cards in our free Resource Center as well.

classShuffleSnip

You can also combine whole class movement to be both “getting to know you” and language development activities.  For example, in our Resource Center we have a sample PowerPoint activity “Class Shuffle”, where students view a slide that asks them to decide what they like better.  The slide may show chocolate or vanilla?  Dogs or cats?  Reading or math?  Students move to the side of the room that represents their preference. Once sorted by their preference, students use the sentence frame provided to verbalize their selection with a partner or with the class. The sentence frames can be modified to match the target English proficiency level of your group.

Now that you have taken the time to get to know your students as people, people who come to your classroom full of life experiences, lessons that engage and challenge them will come easily to you, and the time spent building relationships will be time well spent!

 

NOW AVAILABLE in the English Learner Portal Online Classroom – “The Road to English Proficiency – First Steps in Differentiating and Scaffolding for Language” FREE 10 minute webinar along with FREE sample activities and articles in our Resource Center.

Sign up to be the first to hear about new online course releases here!

Building Relationships with Newcomer Families

lauraThis blog post is written by guest contributor Laura Gardner.  Laura’s bio can be found at the end of this post.

It’s our favorite time of year – Back to School!  As you begin to work with your English Learner students, please don’t forget about engaging their parents.  Numerous studies have shown just how important family engagement is and the positive impact it has on student achievement.  I would argue it’s even more important for our newcomer families as they learn how we “do school” in America.  Here are three tips for building relationships with newcomer parents as you start off the school year.

The most important thing any teacher or school personnel can do is to make ALL 02i11774families feel welcome regardless of what country they’re from, what language they speak, and so on.  Regardless of one’s feelings on the immigration debate, it is important that we check our politics at the door.  So smile!  Greet parents as you would want to be greeted, even if there is a language barrier.  Feelings can easily be conveyed through body-language so smile and say hello!  Even better – learn a simple greeting in another language or two.

03A38219.jpgThe second most important thing teachers and other school personnel can do is to provide newcomer parents with some kind of orientation.  There are so many things that seem obvious to us, but could be new to some families.  For example, school busses are yellow.  Families may not know these sorts of things, so explain everything!  Be sure to also explain expectations around parent involvement because in many countries, this expectation or practice doesn’t exist.  In fact, in many countries it is considered disrespectful if a parent visits their child’s school because it is seen as challenging authority.  Orientations may be delivered in person or by video (for an example, click here).

A third necessary component to building relationships with newcomer families is interpretation and translation services.  If your district has interpretation and translation services in place, please use them!  It is not up to you to decide whether a parent needs the language assistance or not – it’s the parent’s decision and their right. If your district does not have interpretation and translation services in place, please do not use students to interpret!  This will be tempting to do, but students often do not have the vocabulary needed in both languages, nor have they been trained as interpreters.  Furthermore, it puts them in a position of power with access to information they normally wouldn’t have access to.  A second word of caution: do not use Google translate!  This will also be tempting to do, but machine translation is far from perfect and can sometimes cause more problems than good.  A colleague of mine once tried using it for a poster that said “bully free school” and Google translated to “school without killers.”

So if your district doesn’t have interpretation services, what should you do?  ing_38192_23612.jpgProbably the most reasonable temporary fix is to see if any parents or bilingual community members can volunteer their services.  However, please note this really should just be temporary solution because anyone interpreting in a school setting really needs to have their language skills assessed and needs to be trained.  Just because an individual speaks two languages does NOT mean they know how to interpret.  Interpreting is a skill set of its own that requires practice!   Furthermore, language volunteers should go through whatever procedure is typically used to screen volunteers and to ensure confidentiality.

If you’re encountering language barriers with parents and do not have access to interpretation services, the most important thing you can do is speak with your principal and someone at your school district’s central office about the need for these services and share this fact sheet from the U.S. Department of Education.  It explains the federal laws around providing parents with information in a language they understand.

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So there you have it.  Be welcoming, provide orientation, and provide interpreters!  Those are three suggestions to get you started for this school year.  Be on the lookout for a new online course on “Immigrant Family & Community Engagement” in the English Learner Portal Online Classroom.  It’s coming soon!

Please note: Welcoming America is sponsoring “Welcoming Week” September 15-24 and also just released a “Building Welcoming Schools” guide.  Check it out!

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Laura Gardner has 16 years of experience working in public education (MD & VA), refugee resettlement, and social work. While in public education, she worked as a district level manager for immigrant family and community engagement as well as a school social worker. Prior to working in the schools, Laura worked for Bridging Refugee Youth and Children’s Services (BRYCS) and managed their national technical assistance initiative to federal Refugee School Impact Grantees. Laura has facilitated trainings on building the capacity of teachers and school systems to engage immigrant families in their children’s education, language access, cultural competency, equity, unaccompanied immigrant children, immigrant family reunification, and refugee resettlement. Laura holds a Master’s degree in Social Work from Columbia University and a Bachelor’s degree in Education.

COMING SOON to the English Learner Portal Online Classroom – “Immigrant Family and Community Engagement” online course.  

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